How to create a point/line/polygon shapefile with Python and Fiona – Tutorial

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Storage, management and analysis of geospatial vector data as an ESRI shapefile is a common procedure of GIS and related professionals. The generation of these spatial files can be done not only on a desktop software but also by Python commands.  We have created an applied example that shows the procedure in Python to create point, line, and polygon shapefiles from a csv file by the use of the Fiona library.

If you are a Windows user, it is recommended to have Fiona and other geospatial libraries installed under a Conda environment following this tutorial.

Tutorial

Python code

#import requires packages
import fiona
import pandas as pd

Create point shapefile

#import points from csv file
pointDf = pd.read_csv('../Txt//cropPoints.csv',header=0)
pointDf.head()
X Y Name
0 -84.200969 9.480966 Plant1
1 -84.200841 9.480931 Plant2
2 -84.201841 9.481167 Plant3
3 -84.200862 9.479898 Plant4
4 -84.200657 9.479586 Plant5
# define schema
schema = {
    'geometry':'Point',
    'properties':[('Name','str')]
}
# explore available drivers
fiona.supported_drivers
{'AeronavFAA': 'r',
 'ARCGEN': 'r',
 'BNA': 'rw',
 'DXF': 'rw',
 'CSV': 'raw',
 'OpenFileGDB': 'r',
 'ESRIJSON': 'r',
 'ESRI Shapefile': 'raw',
 'FlatGeobuf': 'rw',
 'GeoJSON': 'raw',
 'GeoJSONSeq': 'rw',
 'GPKG': 'raw',
 'GML': 'rw',
 'OGR_GMT': 'rw',
 'GPX': 'rw',
 'GPSTrackMaker': 'rw',
 'Idrisi': 'r',
 'MapInfo File': 'raw',
 'DGN': 'raw',
 'PCIDSK': 'rw',
 'OGR_PDS': 'r',
 'S57': 'r',
 'SEGY': 'r',
 'SQLite': 'raw',
 'SUA': 'r',
 'TopoJSON': 'r'}

#structure of fiona object

fiona.open(
fp,
mode=’r’,
driver=None,
schema=None,
crs=None,
encoding=None,
layer=None,
vfs=None,
enabled_drivers=None,
crs_wkt=None,
**kwargs,
)

#open a fiona object
pointShp = fiona.open('../ShapeOut/cropPoints.shp', mode='w', driver='ESRI Shapefile',
          schema = schema, crs = "EPSG:4326")
#iterate over each row in the dataframe and save record
for index, row in pointDf.iterrows():
    rowDict = {
        'geometry' : {'type':'Point',
                     'coordinates': (row.X,row.Y)},
        'properties': {'Name' : row.Name},
    }
    pointShp.write(rowDict)
#close fiona object
pointShp.close()

Create line shapefile

#import line vertex from csv file
lineDf = pd.read_csv('../Txt/cropLine.csv',header=0)
lineDf.head()
X Y Name
0 -84.201990 9.480380 Row1
1 -84.201928 9.480319 Row1
2 -84.201871 9.480261 Row1
3 -84.201820 9.480199 Row1
4 -84.201756 9.480133 Row1
# define schema
schema = {
    'geometry':'LineString',
    'properties':[('Name','str')]
}
#open a fiona object
lineShp = fiona.open('../ShapeOut/cropLine.shp', mode='w', driver='ESRI Shapefile',
          schema = schema, crs = "EPSG:4326")
#get list of points
xyList = []
rowName = ''
for index, row in lineDf.iterrows():
    xyList.append((row.X,row.Y))
    rowName = row.Name
xyList[:5]
[(-84.2019904893069, 9.48038022019686),
 (-84.2019279965972, 9.48031926246447),
 (-84.2018711206848, 9.48026145133191),
 (-84.2018196550243, 9.48019910289781),
 (-84.2017559092017, 9.48013268586072)]
#save record and close shapefile
rowDict = {
'geometry' : {'type':'LineString',
                 'coordinates': xyList},
'properties': {'Name' : rowName},
}
lineShp.write(rowDict)
#close fiona object
lineShp.close()

Create polygon shapefile

#import line vertex from csv file
polyDf = pd.read_csv('../Txt/cropPoly.csv',header=0)
polyDf.head()
X Y Name
0 -84.202396 9.480334 Border1
1 -84.202190 9.480555 Border1
2 -84.201886 9.480792 Border1
3 -84.201529 9.481153 Border1
4 -84.201307 9.481303 Border1
#show the last item
polyDf.tail()
X Y Name
19 -84.201742 9.479385 Border1
20 -84.201863 9.479413 Border1
21 -84.202157 9.479673 Border1
22 -84.202398 9.479917 Border1
23 -84.202396 9.480334 Border1
# define schema
schema = {
    'geometry':'Polygon',
    'properties':[('Name','str')]
}
#open a fiona object
polyShp = fiona.open('../ShapeOut/cropPoly.shp', mode='w', driver='ESRI Shapefile',
          schema = schema, crs = "EPSG:4326")
#get list of points
xyList = []
rowName = ''
for index, row in polyDf.iterrows():
    xyList.append((row.X,row.Y))
    rowName = row.Name
xyList[:5]
[(-84.20239642444, 9.48033431305493),
 (-84.2021899231741, 9.48055508704213),
 (-84.2018864783201, 9.48079161161365),
 (-84.2015288437831, 9.48115260231102),
 (-84.2013071850694, 9.4813034753504)]
#save record and close shapefile
rowDict = {
'geometry' : {'type':'Polygon',
                 'coordinates': [xyList]}, #Here the xyList is in brackets
'properties': {'Name' : rowName},
}
polyShp.write(rowDict)
#close fiona object
polyShp.close()

Input data

You can download the input data from this link.

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